Zyndzhyrly - Madrasa

Zyndzhyrly - Madrasa
11/09/2007
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There is a suburb Staroselye in Bakhchisarai. Once it was a settlement Salachik, but after deportation in 1944 the majority of the Crimean-Tatar names have disappeared from the map of Crimea. Five centuries ago Salachik has been chosen by the second Crimean khan Mengly І Gyrey for the erection of "the temple of science" - in this way noble descendants call Zyndzhyrly-madrasa hitherto.

According to the legend, khan's astrologer has disclosed to his master the Divine will - to construct in this place the House for studying sciences. Khan obeyed the will of Allah. He has ordered to all city dwellers to gather on laying the madrasa’s building and addressed to them with the following words, "With the Divine help we begin here today the erection of the sanctuary of science. It will help us to become more perfect people in this world and will clear for us the road to Paradise in the other world. All of us will give our force on the service to this duty. And confirming his words by his deeds khan was the first to start the work. He dug the ground and carried the stones together with the others laying the foundation for the future madrasa. Mengly Gyrey used every opportunity to come to participate in the madrasa’s building, and when the edifice was ready he ordered to hang up a massive on the madrasa's doors circuit …

At the solemn opening of the madrasa khan said:

"The reason makes the person noble, and the way to the perfection of reason lays through science… the one who does not respect science, be he a khan or a padishah, cannot create anything sound, anything created for future, and dishonor will sooner or later befall him. I have ordered to hang up on the madrasa's doors this circuit to make everyone, no matter who he is, bow his head while entering this sacred temple to show his respect for science". And khan was the first one to enter madrasa, bowing himself low…

The name of this educational institution stems from a word “zyndzhyr" - a "circuit"; “Zyndzhyrly" means “connected by circuits”.

And over the entrance there is an inscription in Arabic, which is preserved to our times, "This school with the help of Allah the Almighty ordered to build khan Mengly Gyrey, the son of the khan Adzhy Gyrey. May Allah extend the term of his reign up to the end of the age, year 906. [1500]".

In Zyndzhyrly people always adhered to three precepts: faith helps those who are wise; only knowledgeable will be loved and respected; authority is nothing if it reigns without knowing and believing.

From the first days of existence of madrasa here reigned severe discipline, order and mutual respect between students and teachers.

To the teaching in Zyndzhyrly-madrasa were accepted only those who "due to pure conscience and honor, without predilection and own self-interest, eliminating enmity and connections of family relationship and friendship, on mind and conscience quality appeared to be the most capable and the most worthy, in order not to drop in public estimation educational and moral value of this educational institution". Here lectured first Ulama - experts of theology and jurisprudence. The curriculum lasted ten years - twice less than in other madrasas due to the intensive program.

The students (sokhts) who obtained only elementary education (were able to read Quran and to write) were accepted at the low course where they studied the Arabic language. Those who graduated from other Crimean or Caucasian madrasas on the "Аlibiya" course were accepted to Zyndzhyrly at the high course and became experts of the Arabic language. Except for Arabic the sokhts studied Quran and Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), the Turkish language, calligraphy, arithmetic, rhetoric, logic and jurisprudence, the science about morals and poetry, Muslim philosophy and aesthetics. In 1867 in the course has been added also the Russian language. Besides the sokhts attended craft classes. The classes were carried out daily for 7 hours.

In Zyndzhyrly were trained imams, teachers, civil servants, and graduates of "the temple of sciences" had the same level of training as graduates of oriental faculties of universities.

Every year in June the students had to pass end-of-year examinations. After them they went for holidays up to October. Once again the studying was interrupted during the fast in Ramadan. Besides, the sokhts were let off home on Fridays.

Totally in madrasa were annually trained 60-70 students from 11 years and more senior. They lived in rooms. In each room lived 4-5 persons, and there was appointed the student in charge in each room who kept up the order and the younger students charged to him. The sokhts were kept on madrasa's means. From the same means the salary was paid to teachers, salesmen, the clerk, wardens, was carried out buildings’ reparation and care of the tomb of Zyndzhyrly's founder - Mengly І Gyrey, necessary books were bought. In 1890 the madrasa's library totaled more than 800 books and manuscripts in Arabic, Turkish, Persian and Russian languages.

The revenue of the madrasa was brought in by the earth, the houses and shops, which were given as charity for the benefit of Zyndzhyrly by different people in different time. By the way, for "the temple of science" bequeathed her money even some Russian emperors - Ekaterina the ІІ (45 roubles 60 kopecks - "for the Divine craft") and Alexander the ІІІ (5000 roubles on reparation of buildings in 1890).

In 1917 Zyndzhyrly-madrasa was transformed into Mengly Gyrey Institute "Zyndzhyrly" with an 8-year curriculum. The institute differed from other educational institutions by a greater number of lessons in dogma. For the training of imams in the institute were opened biennial courses. As before 50 students lived in a hostel free-of-charge.

At the beginning of 20th Zyndzhyrly-madrasa and Khan mosque next to it were closed and included to the list of architectural and archeological monuments of the Crimean ASSR.

At the end of the XX-th century on the madrasa's territory was situated psycho neurological hospital...

Time and human ingratitude have not destroyed “the temple of science”. Thank God! We will also cherish a hope that sometime, God willing, heads of students and professors will bow on the entrance to Zyndzhyrly-madrsa, a pearl of the Crimean-Tatar culture and science, and ancient walls will be filled with rustle of books and sound of the Divine Word.

"Arraid" Newspaper

Batul RUSTAMOVA

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